Killing of Ayman al-Zawahiri

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Part of the Global War on Terrorism
President Biden meets his national security team regarding Ayman al-Zawahiri.jpg
President Biden meets with his national security team to discuss the counterterrorism operation to take out al-Zawahiri.
Date31 July 2022 (2022-07-31)
Timec. 6:18 a.m.[1] (UTC+04:30)
LocationSherpur, Kabul, Afghanistan
Coordinates34°32′03″N 69°10′33″E / 34.53417°N 69.17583°E / 34.53417; 69.17583Coordinates: 34°32′03″N 69°10′33″E / 34.53417°N 69.17583°E / 34.53417; 69.17583
TypeDrone strike[1]
Executed by Central Intelligence Agency

Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leader of the Salafi jihadist group al-Qaeda, was killed by a United States drone strike on 31 July 2022 in Kabul, Afghanistan. He was the successor of Osama bin Laden, who was killed by U.S. forces in Pakistan on 2 May 2011. Al-Zawahiri, who had helped to plan the September 11 attacks against the U.S., had gone into hiding following the attacks, and was located by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) months before his death. After receiving authorization from U.S. President Joe Biden to initiate the strike, the CIA fired two Hellfire missiles at the balcony of the safe house where al-Zawahiri was staying, killing him.[1]

The strike came nearly a year after the conclusion of the War in Afghanistan. U.S. officials called al-Zawahiri's presence in Afghanistan a violation of the agreement for the withdrawal of American forces from the country, under which the Taliban would not allow al-Qaeda members any sanctuary. Following the strike, members of the Haqqani network attempted to cover up al-Zawahiri's death, although the U.S. was able to confirm it.[1] In response to the strike, Biden released a statement announcing al-Zawahiri's death, calling the strike a "deliverance of justice".[2]

Background[edit]

Ayman al-Zawahiri was a leader of the extremist militant organization al-Qaeda and the deputy to its leader Osama bin Laden. He had planned the September 11 attacks, carried out on the United States on 11 September 2001, alongside bin Laden.[3] After the attacks, American President George W. Bush released a list of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Most Wanted Terrorists, designating al-Zawahiri as the second most wanted behind bin Laden. While bin Laden led al-Qaeda, many observers saw al-Zawahiri as being responsible for its operations. He however eluded an international manhunt and assassination attempts under Presidents Bush, Barack Obama and Donald Trump.[4]

In late 2001, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri eluded the grasp of American forces during their invasion of Afghanistan, which al-Qaeda used as a base under the rule of the Taliban. Bin Laden was killed in an American raid in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in 2011, with al-Zawahiri taking over a weakened al-Qaeda after years of military operations against it.[5] In 2016, it was reported that he had gone to extreme lengths to evade American forces and American officials believed he was hiding in the area along the Durand Line, the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, using a green screen to mask his surroundings while delivering video messages.[6]

After nearly 20 years of war, the U.S. government negotiated a withdrawal agreement with the Taliban under which the Taliban agreed not to provide a safe haven for individuals involved with al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations.[1] As American forces started withdrawing, the Taliban quickly recaptured Afghanistan in 2021.[7] A drone strike in Kabul, carried out by the U.S. while evacuating, caused the deaths of ten civilians. While the U.S. initially denied the error, it was forced to acknowledge it after an exposé by The New York Times. Administration sources told the Times that since then they "have been taking more precautions to prevent civilian casualties in the strikes."[1]

Preparation[edit]

After the fall of Kabul to the Taliban, al-Zawahiri's family relocated to a safe house in the city according to American officials, who had learned about it in 2022.[8] They started tracking his family six to seven months before the assassination and eventually learned that al-Zawahiri himself had also moved there from Pakistan. He never left the safe house after arriving there, and his daily habits were tracked by the U.S. Intelligence Community for months, so they could confirm that it was indeed him.[9][10] The building is located in Sherpur, a neighborhood in downtown Kabul that used to be derelict, but was converted into an affluent and tightly controlled area after its takeover by the Afghan Ministry of Defense.[5]

Jonathan Finer, the deputy national security advisor to Biden, and Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, the homeland security advisor, were the first to be briefed on al-Zawahiri's location in early April 2022. Later other officials were informed and national security advisor Jake Sullivan briefed Biden shortly afterwards. During May and June, American officials verified the information and prepared various options for Biden in order to carry out the assassination.[11][1]

After learning that al-Zawahiri liked to sit on the balcony of his house, American officials constructed a scale model of the building in order to prepare for the strike and avoid harm to the other occupants. It was shown to Biden on 1 July. Officials including William J. Burns, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Avril Haines, Director of National Intelligence, Christine Abizaid, director of the National Counterterrorism Center, discussed the strike with Biden during the day. On 25 July, he received a final briefing and all of the officials involved in the decision to carry out the strike gave their unanimous approval.[11][1]

Attack[edit]

On 31 July 2022, at 6:18 a.m. local time, a U.S.-operated drone fired two AGM-114 Hellfire missiles at al-Zawahiri while he was standing outside on the balcony of his house.[12] Al-Zawahiri was killed, but the other occupants of the house were unharmed.[3] The Hellfire variant was speculated to have been the R9X, armed with a kinetic warhead with pop-out blades instead of explosives, and used against specific human targets to minimize collateral damage;[13] it has been called the "Ninja bomb" and the "Flying Ginsu".[13][14][15]

The New York Times, citing an American analyst, reported that the house struck was owned by a top aide to Sirajuddin Haqqani, a senior official in the Taliban government.[16] US officials did not say from which country or location the drone was launched, according to NPR however it was likely launched from a great distance away before reaching Kabul.[17]

News of the event broke two days after the strike was conducted, after intelligence confirmed that al-Zawahiri was dead.[18] A senior Biden administration official confirmed to reporters that a drone strike had taken place in Afghanistan and that it had eliminated an al-Qaeda target. Biden confirmed that he had authorized the strike a week prior and that the U.S. Intelligence Community had tracked al-Zawahiri in early 2022 as he moved into Kabul.[19]

Reactions[edit]

U.S. politicians[edit]

President Biden delivers remarks confirming that US military executed a targeted killing of al-Zawahiri.

U.S. President Joe Biden in a televised address stated that "justice has been delivered" and American forces would find and eliminate anyone who was a threat to the U.S., while citing the involvement of al-Zawahiri in the September 11 attacks as a justification.[20]

The Secretary of State Antony Blinken accused the Taliban of "grossly violating" the withdrawal agreement by giving refuge to al-Zawahiri.[21] National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby warned the Taliban to abide by the agreement if it wanted international recognition and financing.[22]

The State Department issued a "Worldwide Caution Alert" on 2 August, warning of a higher potential of al-Qaeda sympathizers attacking Americans after the strike and urging American citizens traveling to other countries to remain cautious.[23]

Members of the Democratic Party actively praised Biden's actions, including House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, and various members of Congress.

Senators belonging to the Republican Party praised Biden's actions, including Marco Rubio and Joni Ernst. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell urged Biden's administration to adopt a comprehensive security plan in Afghanistan.[24]

Former president Barack Obama applauded the killing on Twitter, proclaiming that "tonight’s news is also proof that it’s possible to root out terrorism without being at war in Afghanistan. And I hope it provides a small measure of peace to the 9/11 families and everyone else who has suffered at the hands of al-Qaeda."[25]

Taliban reactions[edit]

A statement from the Taliban condemned the operation and said the strike was conducted on a residential house in the Sherpur area of Kabul.[16] A spokesman for the Taliban said: "Such actions are a repetition of the failed experiences of the past 20 years and are against the interests of the United States of America, Afghanistan and the region".[2]

According to a senior American official, members of the Haqqani network, which is a part of the Taliban government, had tried to hide that al-Zawahiri had been at the house and restricted access to it, however the U.S. was able to confirm his death from multiple intelligence sources.[1] He also stated that the group moved al-Zawahiri's family to another location following the strike.[26]

The Taliban did not confirm al-Zawahiri's death following the strike. While Taliban officials initially confirmed the attack, they claimed the house was empty.[27] The organization was reported to be in a political dilemma following the strike due to its desire to be recognized by the international community, which could be put at risk if it undertook any aggressive actions, and it facing pressure from within its ranks to respond to the U.S.[28][27]

Suhail Shaheen, the head of the Taliban's political office in Doha, said that they were not aware of the presence of al-Zawahiri in Kabul and an investigation was underway to verify the allegations. Zabiullah Mujahid, the chief spokesperson of the Taliban, assured that Afghanistan would not become a refuge for terrorism against any country and insisted that the organization would honor the withdrawal agreement, while warning the U.S. to stop violating it.[29] He later claimed that they did not find a body at the site.[30]

International governments[edit]

Allies of the United States inside and outside of NATO praised the death of al-Zawahiri. Australia's Prime Minister Anthony Albanese said he hoped terrorist attack victims find some "small solace" in the death of al-Zawahiri,[31] while Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau tweeted "The death of Ayman al-Zawahiri is a step toward a safer world. Canada will keep working with our global partners to counter terrorist threats, promote peace and security and keep people here at home and around the world safe."[32]

Saudi Arabia's foreign ministry said "al-Zarahwi is considered one of the leaders of terrorism that led the planning and execution of heinous terrorist operations in the United States and Saudi Arabia."[33]

China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs reacted to al-Zawahiri's death, stating that it is against all forms of terrorism, but at the same time opposed to double standards on counter-terrorism operations and that "Counter-terrorism cooperation should not be conducted at the expense of the sovereignty of other countries."[34]

Individuals[edit]

Greg Barton, chair of Global Islamic Politics at the Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation at Deakin University, said on Sky News Australia that al-Zawahiri might be replaced by a "more effective and more able leader".[35]

The strike was criticized by conservative columnist Marc Thiessen for being conducted remotely, in comparison to the action by US Navy SEALs that killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. Thiessen wrote that the drone strike left no opportunity to gain actionable information, as the earlier operation in Pakistan had, and compared Biden's justification of the action with Blinken's comments in August 2021 about the fall of Afghanistan to the Taliban, in which he called the remaining Al-Qaeda operatives "remnants".[36]

German professor for International Law Christoph Safferling on the Tagesschau considered the killing to be in violation of international law, because he does not consider Al Qaeda to be an "armed organization".[37] Legal expert Robert Chesney has argued that the strike was legal under domestic U.S. and international law, as the law of armed conflict would apply to Zawahiri due to Al Qaeda's continued involvement in planning violent attacks against the United States.[38]

Al-Qaeda has yet to name a successor to al-Zawahiri.[7] The strike has put into question the safety of Mark Frerichs, a 60-year-old civil engineer believed to be held by Haqqani captors and the only known American hostage in Afghanistan.[39] Anti-American protests broke out in Afghanistan on 5 August, with hundreds of Afghans condemning the U.S. for the strike.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Baker, Peter; Cooper, Helene; Barnes, Julian; Schmitt, Eric (1 August 2022). "U.S. Drone Strike Kills Ayman al-Zawahri, Top Qaeda Leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b Lee, Matthew; Merchant, Nomaan; Madhani, Aamer (1 August 2022). "Biden: Killing of al-Qaida leader is long-sought 'justice'". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  3. ^ a b Plummer, Robert; Murphy, Matt (2 August 2022). "Ayman al-Zawahiri: Al-Qaeda leader killed in US drone strike". BBC. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  4. ^ "Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri killed in drone strike, Biden says". CBS News. 2 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  5. ^ a b Harris, Shane; Lamothe, Dan; DeYoung, Karen; Mekhenet, Souad; Constable, Pamela (2 August 2022). "U.S. kills al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in drone strike in Kabul". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  6. ^ Windrem, Robert; Arkin, William M. (17 May 2016). "Why Hasn't the U.S. Killed Bin Laden's Wingman Ayman al-Zawahiri?". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b Liptak, Kevin; Atwood, Kylie; Bertrand, Natasha; Vazquez, Maegan; Judd, Donald; Walsh, Nick (1 August 2022). "US kills al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in drone strike in Afghanistan". CNN. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  8. ^ Lee, Matthew; Merchant, Nomaan; Balsamo, Mike (1 August 2022). "CIA drone strike kills al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahri in Afghanistan". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  9. ^ Welker, Kristen; Dilanian, Ken; Egan, Lauren; Kube, Courtney; Lee, Carol E. (2 August 2022). "U.S. drone strike kills Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in Afghanistan". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  10. ^ Gardner, Akayla (2 August 2022). "US Mission to Kill Zawahiri Tracked Family for Months Before Attack". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  11. ^ a b Miller, Zeke; Madhani, Aamer (2 August 2022). "Months of efforts to track al-Qaeda chief's 'pattern of life' key to assassination". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  12. ^ Norfolk, Simon (2011). "The districts of Wazir Akhbar Khan and Sherpur". Tate. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  13. ^ a b Beaumont, Peter (25 September 2020). "US military increasingly using drone missile with flying blades in Syria". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020.
  14. ^ Lubold, Gordon; Strobel, Warren P. (9 May 2019). "Secret U.S. Missile Aims to Kill Only Terrorists, Not Nearby Civilians". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  15. ^ "2 Missiles, No Blast: Did US Use Secret Weapon To Kill Al Qaeda Chief?". AFP. 2 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  16. ^ a b Cooper, Helene; Barnes, Julian E.; Schmitt, Eric (1 August 2022). "Live Updates: U.S. Drone Strike Said to Have Killed Top Qaeda Leader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  17. ^ Myre, Greg; Treisman, Rachel (2 August 2022). "3 things the strike on al-Zawahiri tell us about the U.S. counterterrorism strategy". NPR. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  18. ^ Ward, Alexander; McLeary, Paul; Toosi, Nahal; Seligman, Lara (1 August 2022). "U.S. kills al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahri in drone strike". Politico. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  19. ^ Axelrod, Tal (1 August 2022). "Biden announces killing of al-Qaeda leader in Kabul: 'Justice has been delivered'". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  20. ^ "U.S. drone strike kills Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in Afghanistan". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  21. ^ Sharma, Akriti (2 August 2022). "Blinken says Taliban 'grossly' violated Doha agreement by sheltering al Qaeda's Zawahiri". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  22. ^ Szuba, Jared (3 August 2022). "US warns Taliban to abide by Doha peace agreement". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 4 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  23. ^ Sarkar, Alisha Rahaman (3 August 2022). "State Department updates 'worldwide caution' after al-Zawahiri strike". The Independent. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  24. ^ Cheng, Amy (2 August 2022). "Killing of Zawahiri draws praise from bipartisan lawmakers, Saudi Arabia". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  25. ^ "Reaction to killing of al Qaeda leader Zawahiri". Reuters. 2 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  26. ^ Schick, Camilla (4 August 2022). "Taliban denies knowledge of al-Zawahiri's presence in Kabul, with some members blaming its Haqqani faction". CBS News. Archived from the original on 4 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  27. ^ a b Ahmad, Jibran; Yawar, Mohammad Yunus (3 August 2022). "Tight-lipped Taliban leaders gather after U.S. says Zawahiri killed". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  28. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (3 August 2022). "'Tricky situation': Taliban unsure how to respond to Zawahiri's death". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  29. ^ Najafizada, Eltaf (4 August 2022). "Taliban Say Unaware of al-Qaeda Leader's Presence in Kabul". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  30. ^ "Taliban 'couldn't find' Al-Zawahiri's body after US assassination in Kabul". The New Arab. 7 August 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  31. ^ "No safe haven for terrorists: Albanese". au.sports.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  32. ^ Trudeau, Justin [@JustinTrudeau] (2 August 2022). "The death of Ayman al-Zawahiri is a step toward a safer world. Canada will keep working with our global partners to counter terrorist threats, promote peace and security, and keep people here at home and around the world safe" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  33. ^ "Ayman al-Zawahiri killed: How the world reacted". Al Jazeera. 2 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  34. ^ Varma, K. J. M. (2 August 2022). "Opposed to counter-terror ops at 'expense of sovereignty' of others: China on al-Zawahiri's killing". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  35. ^ "Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri killed in CIA drone strike in Afghanistan, senior Biden administration official confirms". Sky News Australia. 2 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  36. ^ Thiessen, Marc A. (1 August 2022). "Zawahiri was in 'downtown Kabul' because of Biden's disastrous Afghanistan withdrawal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  37. ^ "Al-Kaida-Chef getötet: Was sagt das Völkerrecht dazu?". tagesschau.de (in German). Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  38. ^ "On the Legality of the Strike that Killed Ayman al-Zawahiri". Lawfare. 3 August 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  39. ^ Harris, Shane; Lamothe, Dan; DeYoung, Karen; Mekhennet, Souad; Constable, Pamela (1 August 2022). "U.S. kills al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in drone strike in Kabul". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  40. ^ Mohammad Yunus Yawar; Rupam Jain (5 August 2022). "Anti-U.S. protests erupt in Afghanistan". Reuters. Retrieved 7 August 2022.