Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences (actual or perceived) of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is often practiced by film producers, film directors, publishers, news anchors, journalists, musicians, and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media.
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees freedom of speech from all forms of censorship. Article 19 explicitly states that "everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers."
Reasons for self-expression
People often communicate to affirm their identity and sense of belonging. People may express their opinions or withhold their opinions due to the fear of exclusion or unpopularity. Shared social norms and beliefs create a sense of belonging, but they can also create a suppression of expression in order to comply or belong. People may adjust their beliefs or opinions to go along with the majority attitude. There are different factors that contribute to self-censorship, such as gender, age, education, political interests, and media exposure. For some, the reason for their change in beliefs and opinions is rooted in fear of isolation and exclusion. For these people, the expression of their own beliefs is less important than the fear of negative reactions of others to the expression of those beliefs.
According to the survey on self-censorship in Germany, conducted from May 3–16, 2019 by Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach for the newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), 59% of respondents said they can express their views among friends, but only 18% believe the same is possible in public. Only 17% of respondents express themselves freely on the Internet.
Religious affiliation is a topic in which many occupational fields and areas may be a source of self-censorship. One particular area is psychology. From the origins of psychology, the field has frequently viewed religion with distrust. Psychologists and therapists often refrain from claiming to be part of any religion believing in the possibility that any expressions of any devout faith may be viewed as markers for mental illness or distress. A 2013 survey from the American Psychological Association (APA) found that “relative to the general population, psychologists were more than twice likely to claim no religion, three times more likely to describe religion as unimportant in their lives, and five times more likely to deny belief in God.”
Self-censorship can also occur in order to conform to the expectations of the market. For example, the editor of a periodical may consciously or unconsciously avoid topics that will anger advertisers, customers, or the owners in order to protect their livelihood either directly (i.e., fear of losing their job) or indirectly (e.g., a belief that a book will be more profitable if it does not contain offensive material). This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as soft censorship.
In authoritarian countries, creators of artworks may remove material that their government might find controversial for fear of sanction by their governments. In pluralistic capitalist countries, repressive judicial lawmaking can also cause widespread "rivercrabbing" of Western media.
Taste and decency
Taste and decency are other areas in which questions are often raised regarding self-censorship. Art or journalism involving images or footage of murder, terrorism, war and massacres may cause complaints as to the purpose to which they are put. Curators and editors will frequently censor these images to avoid charges of prurience, shock tactics or invasion of privacy. Concepts like political correctness and spiral of silence have been found to contribute to the existence of self-censorship.
When the director of the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art was interviewed regarding his decision to whitewash an antiwar mural showing dollar-draped military coffins, he speculated that the mural would have offended the community in which it was placed. He then added that "there were zero complaints, because I took care of it right away,".
Journalists often censor themselves due to threats against them or their interests from another party, editorial instructions from their supervisor[s], perceived conflicts of interest with a media organization's economic sponsors, advertisers or shareholders, etc.). Self-censorship occurs when journalists deliberately manipulate their expression out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences (actual or perceived) of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship of journalists is most pervasive in societies where governments have official media censorship policies and where journalists will be jailed, fined, or simply lose their job if they do not follow the censorship rules. Organizations such as (Media Matters for America, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, Democracy Now!, and the American Civil Liberties Union) have raised concerns about news broadcasting stations, particularly Fox News, censoring their own content to be less controversial when reporting on certain types of issues such as the War on Terror.
In their book Manufacturing Consent (1988), Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman argue that corporate ownership of news media very strongly encourages systematic self-censorship owing to market forces. In this argument, even with supposedly liberal media, bias and (often unconscious) self-censorship is evident in the selection and omission of news stories, and the framing of acceptable discussion, in line with the interests of the corporations owning those media.
The journalists have actively sought censorship advice from military authorities in order to prevent the inadvertent revelation of military secrets. In 2009, The New York Times succeeded in suppressing news of a reporter's abduction by militants in Afghanistan for seven months until his escape from captivity in order to 'reduce danger to the reporter and other hostages'.
Journalists have sometimes self-censored publications of news stories out of concern for the safety of people involved. Jean Pelletier, the Washington D.C. correspondent for the Montreal La Presse newspaper, uncovered a covert attempt by the Canadian government to smuggle US diplomats out of Iran during the Iranian Hostage Crisis before the "Canadian Caper" had reached its conclusion. In order to preserve the safety of those involved, he refused to allow the paper to publish the story until the hostages had left Iran, despite the considerable news value to the paper and writer.
Self-censorship by journalists has been described as a form of a survival strategy, allowing journalists to report on some issues rather than going to far and risking a more complete crackdown by the authorities, resulting in even less independent reporting.
Self-censorship is found in the world of academia in a number of contexts. Self-censorship in scientific publications that have been criticized as politically motivated include scientists under the Third Reich withholding findings that disagreed with the commonly held beliefs in differences between races, or the refusal of these scientists under Hitler to support General Relativity (which got the reputation as "Jewish science"). More recently, certain scientists have withheld their findings related to climate changes caused by pollution and to endangered species.
Professor Heinz Klatt argues that hate laws, speech codes, cowardice, and political correctness have resulted in an intellectually repressive atmosphere in modern-day academic circles, with widespread self-censorship on topics like homosexuality, (learning) disabilities, Islam, and genetic differences between human races and sexes.
Risks from scientific publications
In the early days of atomic physics, it was realized that discoveries regarding nuclear fission and the chain reaction might be used for both beneficial and harmful purposes - on the one hand, such discoveries could have important applications for medicine and energy production, however on the other hand, they might also lead to the production of unprecedented weapons of mass destruction. Leo Szilard argues that if dangerous discoveries were kept secret, the development and use of such weapons might be avoided. Similarly, findings in the field of medicine and biotechnology could facilitate production of biological weapons of mass destruction. In 2003 members of the Journal Editors and Authors Group, 32 leading journal editors, perceived the threat from biological warfare as sufficiently high to warrant a system of self-censorship on the public dissemination of certain aspects of their community's research. The statement agreed on declared:
We recognize that the prospect of bioterrorism has raised legitimate concerns about the potential abuse of published information... We are committed to dealing responsibly and effectively with safety and security issues that may be raised by papers submitted for publication, and to increasing our capacity to identify such issues as they arise...[O]n occasions an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits... the paper should be modified, or not be published...
In China, the media and citizens have to go to even greater extents to censor much of the material that they would post online. Many companies have been shut down by government because of the content that they have published. Nearly 10,000 social media accounts in October 2018 were shut down that published entertainment and celebrity news. As well as 370 different streaming apps that were pulled off of the app stores for non-compliance. Due to these high numbers of government interference, the companies and networks that publish on the internet are now employing people and utilizing sophisticated programs to find videos and pictures that are offensive to remove before the government can get them in trouble.
Self-censorship by Western companies trying to appease Chinese authorities has also affected the quality of content available to the citizens in other countries. It increasingly affects video games, including those by Western developers who want to sell their products to Chinese gamers as well.
Self-censorship has been found to affect Colombian journalism.
European Union officials have been accused of self-censorship on topics deemed sensitive by China, in order to avoid diplomatic rifts between China and EU.
Threats to media freedom have shown a significant increase in recent years in Europe. Journalists and whistleblowers have experienced physical and psychological intimidation and threats. Self-censorship is one of the major consequences of such circumstances.
A study published in 2017 by the Council of Europe found that in the period 2014-2016 that 40% of journalists involved in the survey experienced some kind of unwarranted interference, in particular psychological violence, including slandering and smear campaigning, cyberbulling. Other forms of unwarranted interference include intimidation by interest groups, threats with force, intimidation by political groups, targeted surveillance, intimidation by the police, etc. In terms of geography, cases of physical assault were more common in the South Caucasus, followed by Turkey, but were present in other regions as well.
In the early 2010s, self-censorship was studied in the context of professional practice of many Indonesian newspaper journalists.
Self-censorship existed in Russia for a long time. After a brief relaxation following the fall of communism in the 1990s, self-censorship once again became a quite frequent practice in Russia after 2000's government take-overs and consolidation of media, further deepened after 2014-2015 laws on 'undesirable organisations'.
James Gomez writes about this phenomenon in his book Self-Censorship: Singapore's Shame. He argues that citizens and foreigners in Singapore practice self-censorship that results in the censorship of others when it comes to political matters.[page needed]
Self-censorship has increased in Turkey as press freedoms declined under the Justice and Development Party (APK) government in the late 2000s. Affected areas include among others the discussion of the Armenian genocide.
- Bradley effect
- Hawthorne effect
- List of songs deemed inappropriate by Clear Channel following the September 11, 2001 attacks
- Media bias
- OB marker
- Overton window
- Opinion corridor
- Preference falsification
- Political correctness
- Social-desirability bias
- Thought suppression
- University of Salzburg, Journalism Self-Censorship, Global Self-Censorship Struggles: Lebanon, Mexico, China, Hong Kong and Slovakia Archived December 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- Baltussen, Han; Davis, Peter J. (2015-07-27). The Art of Veiled Speech: Self-Censorship from Aristophanes to Hobbes. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-9163-6.
- Baltussen, Han; Davis, Peter J. (2015-07-27). The Art of Veiled Speech: Self-Censorship from Aristophanes to Hobbes. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-9163-6.
- Richard L. Williams (2016). "Censorship and Self-censorship in Late Sixteenth-century English Book Illustration". In Michael Hunter (ed.). Printed Images in Early Modern Britain Essays in Interpretation. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315246048. ISBN 978-1-315-24604-8.
- Bar‐Tal, Daniel (2017). "Self-Censorship as a Socio-Political-Psychological Phenomenon: Conception and Research". Political Psychology. 38 (S1): 37–65. doi:10.1111/pops.12391. ISSN 1467-9221.
- Detert, James R.; Edmondson, Amy C. (2011-06-01). "Implicit Voice Theories: Taken-for-Granted Rules of Self-Censorship at Work". Academy of Management Journal. 54 (3): 461–488. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.61967925. ISSN 0001-4273.
- Köcher, Renate (22 May 2019). "Immer mehr Tabuthemen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.
- "Mehrheit der Deutschen äußert sich in der Öffentlichkeit nur vorsichtig". Die Welt. 22 May 2019.
- Rosik, Christopher H.; Teraoka, Nicole A.; Moretto, James D (2016). "Religiously-based prejudice and self-censorship: Perceptions and experiences among Christian therapists and educators". Journal of Psychology and Christianity: 52–67.
- Habermas, Jurgen (2006). "Religion in the Public Sphere". European Journal of Philosophy. 14: 1–25. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0378.2006.00241.x.
- Germano, Fabrizio; Meier, Martin (2013-01-01). "Concentration and self-censorship in commercial media". Journal of Public Economics. 97: 117–130. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2012.09.009. hdl:10230/11728. ISSN 0047-2727.
- Gray, Garry C.; Kendzia, Victoria Bishop (2009). "Organizational Self-Censorship: Corporate Sponsorship, Nonprofit Funding, and the Educational Experience*". Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie. 46 (2): 161–177. doi:10.1111/j.1755-618X.2009.01209.x. ISSN 1755-618X. S2CID 146421736.
- Hassid, Jonathan (2020-06-01). "Censorship, the Media, and the Market in China". Journal of Chinese Political Science. 25 (2): 285–309. doi:10.1007/s11366-020-09660-0. ISSN 1874-6357. S2CID 216446374.
- Shen, Xiaoxiao; Truex, Rory (2021). "In Search of Self-Censorship". British Journal of Political Science. 51 (4): 1672–1684. doi:10.1017/S0007123419000735. ISSN 0007-1234.
- Tannenberg, Marcus (2017-06-01). "The Autocratic Trust Bias: Politically Sensitive Survey Items and Self-Censorship". Rochester, NY. SSRN 2980727. Cite journal requires
- Robinson, Darrel; Tannenberg, Marcus (2018-04-01). "Self-Censorship in Authoritarian States: Response Bias in Measures of Popular Support in China". Rochester, NY. SSRN 3161915. Cite journal requires
- Steven Swinford (23 May 2011). "Ryan Giggs: from golden boy to tarnished idol". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Cook, Philip; Heilmann, Conrad (2013-03-01). "Two Types of Self-Censorship: Public and Private". Political Studies. 61 (1): 178–196. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.2012.00957.x. hdl:20.500.11820/9b485cf0-e99f-4c5d-bfe6-652521c12299. ISSN 0032-3217. S2CID 142634871.
- LOURY, GLENN C. (1994-10-01). "Self-Censorship in Public Discourse: A Theory of "Political Correctness" and Related Phenomena". Rationality and Society. 6 (4): 428–461. doi:10.1177/1043463194006004002. ISSN 1043-4631. S2CID 143057168.
- Kwon, K. Hazel; Moon, Shin-Il; Stefanone, Michael A. (2015-07-01). "Unspeaking on Facebook? Testing network effects on self-censorship of political expressions in social network sites". Quality & Quantity. 49 (4): 1417–1435. doi:10.1007/s11135-014-0078-8. ISSN 1573-7845. S2CID 7489939.
- Hoffmann, Christian Pieter; Lutz, Christoph (2017-07-28). "Spiral of Silence 2.0: Political Self-Censorship among Young Facebook Users". Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society. #SMSociety17. Toronto, ON, Canada: Association for Computing Machinery: 1–12. doi:10.1145/3097286.3097296. ISBN 978-1-4503-4847-8. S2CID 19728058.
- Freedman, Lauren; Johnson, Holly (2000). "Who's Protecting Whom? "I Hadn't Meant to Tell You This", a Case in Point in Confronting Self-Censorship in the Choice of Young Adult Literature". Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 44 (4): 356–369. ISSN 1081-3004. JSTOR 40015350.
- Finkel, Jori (2010-12-15). "Museum of Contemporary Art commissions, then paints over, artwork". Los Angeles Times.
- Jeanne Meserve (June 29, 2005). "Milk-threat study issued over objections". CNN.com. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, Vintage, 1994, ISBN 0-09-953311-1
- Media Matters for America: 33 internal Fox editorial memos reviewed by MMFA reveal
- FAIR: Censorship Archived 2005-01-18 at the Wayback Machine
- JASON STRAZIUSO (June 20, 2005). "New York Times reporter escapes Taliban captivity". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- Walulya, Gerald; Nassanga, Goretti L. (2020-02-25). "Democracy at Stake: Self-Censorship as a Self-Defence Strategy for Journalists". Media and Communication. 8 (1): 5–14. doi:10.17645/mac.v8i1.2512. ISSN 2183-2439.
- Larsen, Anna Grøndahl; Fadnes, Ingrid; Krøvel, Roy (2020-07-08). Journalist Safety and Self-Censorship. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-07487-1.
- Chamlee-Wright, Emily (2019-12-01). "Self-Censorship and Associational Life in the Liberal Academy". Society. 56 (6): 538–549. doi:10.1007/s12115-019-00413-1. ISSN 1936-4725.
- Ayaz Nanji (February 11, 2005). "Scientific Method: Self-Censorship, Study Finds Researchers Shy Away From Controversial Projects". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Julie Cart (February 10, 2005). "U.S. Scientists Say They Are Told to Alter Findings". Los Angeles Times. p. A-13. Archived from the original on February 24, 2005. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Daniel Schorn (July 30, 2006). "Rewriting The Science, Scientist Says Politicians Edit Global Warming Research". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Heinz Klatt (October 27, 2006). "Self-censorship the bane of academic life". The Gazette (University of Western Ontario). Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Schweber, Silvan S. (2007-01-07). In the Shadow of the Bomb: Oppenheimer, Bethe, and the Moral Responsibility of the Scientist. ISBN 978-0691127859.
- Selgelid, Michael J. (2009). "Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. World health Organization. 87 (9): 720–3. doi:10.2471/blt.08.051383. PMC 2739909. PMID 19784453. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- Pelopidas, Benoît (2016-11-01). "Nuclear Weapons Scholarship as a Case of Self-Censorship in Security Studies". Journal of Global Security Studies. 1 (4): 326–336. doi:10.1093/jogss/ogw017. ISSN 2057-3170.
- "The darker bioweapons future" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. November 3, 2003. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- Broad, William J. (November 1, 2003). "Bioterror Researchers Build A More Lethal Mousepox". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- Nowak, Rachel (10 January 2001). "Killer mousepox virus raises bioterror fears". New Scientist. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- McLeish, C.A. (2003). "Reactions to Self-censorship" (PDF). p. 1. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- Skjerdal, Terje (2010-12-18). "Justifying Self-Censorship: A Perspective from Ethiopia". Rochester, NY. SSRN 1742843. Cite journal requires
- Moges, Mulatu Alemayehu (2017). "Ethiopian Journalism from Self-Censoring to Silence: A Case of Reporting on Internal Conflict". ESSACHESS - Journal for Communication Studies. X (1): 111–128. ISSN 2066-5083.
- Parks, Lisa; Mukherjee, Rahul (2017-07-03). "From platform jumping to self-censorship: internet freedom, social media, and circumvention practices in Zambia". Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. 14 (3): 221–237. doi:10.1080/14791420.2017.1290262. ISSN 1479-1420. S2CID 152083308.
- Jaygbay, Jacob. "Self-censorship in African scholarship and scholarly publishing." Journal of scholarly publishing 29, no. 2 (1998): 112.
- Kenny, Timothy; Gross, Peter (2008-10-01). "Journalism in Central Asia: A Victim of Politics, Economics, and Widespread Self-censorship". The International Journal of Press/Politics. 13 (4): 515–525. doi:10.1177/1940161208324644. ISSN 1940-1612. S2CID 143809799.
- Lee, Francis L.F.; Chan, Joseph (2009-01-01). "Organizational Production of Self-Censorship in the Hong Kong Media". The International Journal of Press/Politics. 14 (1): 112–133. doi:10.1177/1940161208326598. ISSN 1940-1612. S2CID 143852567.
- Tong, Jingrong (2009-09-01). "Press self-censorship in China: a case study in the transformation of discourse". Discourse & Society. 20 (5): 593–612. doi:10.1177/0957926509106412. ISSN 0957-9265. S2CID 144245109.
- Lee, Chin-Chuan (1998-03-01). "Press Self-Censorship and Political Transition in Hong Kong". Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics. 3 (2): 55–73. doi:10.1177/1081180X98003002005. ISSN 1081-180X. S2CID 145765508.
- Zhong, Zhi-Jin; Wang, Tongchen; Huang, Minting (2017-01-01). "Does the Great Fire Wall cause self-censorship? The effects of perceived internet regulation and the justification of regulation". Internet Research. 27 (4): 974–990. doi:10.1108/IntR-07-2016-0204. ISSN 1066-2243.
- Robinson, Darrel; Tannenberg, Marcus (2019-07-01). "Self-censorship of regime support in authoritarian states: Evidence from list experiments in China". Research & Politics. 6 (3): 2053168019856449. doi:10.1177/2053168019856449. ISSN 2053-1680.
- Lee, Francis L.F.; Lin, Angel M.Y. (2006-05-01). "Newspaper editorial discourse and the politics of self-censorship in Hong Kong". Discourse & Society. 17 (3): 331–358. doi:10.1177/0957926506062371. hdl:10722/92430. ISSN 0957-9265. S2CID 53127938.
- Wang, Natasha Khan and Joyu (2020-07-02). "Hong Kong's Security Law Scares Citizens Into Scrubbing Social Media, Self-Censorship". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- Kuo, Lily (2018-12-31). "From 'rice bunny' to 'back up the car': China's year of censorship". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
- "In China, a circle of online self-censorship; Threat of being shut down for violating laws pushes internet firms to police their networks." Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada], 5 June 2018, p. A1. World History in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A541400341/WHIC?u=mcc_pv&sid=WHIC&xid=61681362. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.
- Zhen, Simon K. (2015). "An Explanation of Self-Censorship in China: The Enforcement of Social Control Through a Panoptic Infrastructure". Inquiries Journal. 7 (9).
- "View of China's Censorship 2.0: How companies censor bloggers | First Monday". firstmonday.org. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- "The big business of self-censorship over China - UCA News". ucanews.com. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- O'Brien, Danny. "Who pays price for internet self-censorship in China?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- Siegel, Tatiana (2020-08-05). "Hollywood Is "Increasingly Normalizing" Self-Censorship for China, Report Finds". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- The Editorial Board (2019-10-19). "Opinion | The Chinese Threat to American Speech". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- Jaw-Nian, Huang (2017-09-01). "The China Factor in Taiwan's Media. Outsourcing Chinese Censorship Abroad". China Perspectives. 2017 (2017/3): 27–36. doi:10.4000/chinaperspectives.7388. ISSN 2070-3449.
- "Made in Hollywood, Censored by Beijing". PEN America. 2020-08-05. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- Fish, Isaac Stone (2018-09-04). "The Other Political Correctness". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- "Self-censorship is Beijing's most effective gag on truth". South China Morning Post. 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- "No cults, no politics, no ghouls: how China censors the video game world | Games | The Guardian". 2021-07-15. Archived from the original on 2021-07-15. Retrieved 2021-07-24.
- Barrios, Marta Milena; Miller, Toby (2020-06-12). "Voices of Resilience: Colombian Journalists and Self-Censorship in the Post-Conflict Period". Journalism Practice: 1–18. doi:10.1080/17512786.2020.1778506. ISSN 1751-2786. S2CID 225697881.
- Schimpfössl, Elisabeth; Yablokov, Ilya; Zeveleva, Olga; Fedirko, Taras; Bajomi-Lazar, Peter (2020-02-01). "Self-censorship narrated: Journalism in Central and Eastern Europe". European Journal of Communication. 35 (1): 3–11. doi:10.1177/0267323119897801. ISSN 0267-3231. S2CID 213509921.
- Iordanidou, Sofia; Takas, Emmanouil; Vatikiotis, Leonidas; García, Pedro (2020-02-25). "Constructing Silence: Processes of Journalistic (Self-)Censorship during Memoranda in Greece, Cyprus, and Spain". Media and Communication. 8 (1): 15–26. doi:10.17645/mac.v8i1.2634. ISSN 2183-2439.
- Moniz, Maria Lin; Seruya, Teresa (2009-03-26). Translation and Censorship in Different Times and Landscapes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-0902-3.
- Taylor, Max Roger (May 26, 2020). "China-EU relations: self-censorship by EU diplomats is commonplace". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
- "New study on intimidation of journalists and self-censorship in Europe". Council of Europe. Newsroom. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- CLARK, Marilyn; GRECH, Anna (2017). Journalism under pressure. Unwarranted interference, fear and self-censorship in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe publishing. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Tapsell, Ross (2012-06-01). "Old Tricks in a New Era: Self-Censorship in Indonesian Journalism". Asian Studies Review. 36 (2): 227–245. doi:10.1080/10357823.2012.685926. ISSN 1035-7823. S2CID 144494432.
- Elbaz, Sagi, and Daniel Bar-Tal. "Voluntary silence: Israeli media self-censorship during the Second Lebanon War." Conflict & communication 18, no. 2 (2019).
- Hameiri, Boaz; Sharvit, Keren; Bar‐Tal, Daniel; Shahar, Eldad; Halperin, Eran (2017). "Support for Self-Censorship Among Israelis as a Barrier to Resolving the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict". Political Psychology. 38 (5): 795–813. doi:10.1111/pops.12346. ISSN 1467-9221.
- Nets-Zehngut, Rafi; Pliskin, Ruthie; Bar-Tal, Daniel (August 2015). "Self-censorship in conflicts: Israel and the 1948 Palestinian exodus". Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. 21 (3): 479–499. doi:10.1037/pac0000094. ISSN 1532-7949.
- Nadadur, Ramanujan D. (2007-06-01). "Self-Censorship In The Pakistani Print Media". South Asian Survey. 14 (1): 45–63. doi:10.1177/097152310701400105. ISSN 0971-5231. S2CID 154492288.
- Red lines of journalism : Digital surveillance, safety risks and journalists' self-censorship in Pakistan. Routledge. 2020-07-08. doi:10.4324/9780367810139-3. ISBN 978-0-367-81013-9. S2CID 225758680.
- Kelly, Aileen (1987). "Self-Censorship and the Russian Intelligentsia, 1905-1914". Slavic Review. 46 (2): 193–213. doi:10.2307/2498907. ISSN 0037-6779. JSTOR 2498907.
- "Russia's 'Undesirables' Law Expected to Boost Media Self-Censorship | News". Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Newspaper censors its own interview with Russian opposition leader, removing criticism of Putin and others". Retrieved 2015-09-07.
- "Coercion or Conformism? Censorship and Self- Censorship among Russian Media Personalities and Reporters in the 2010s" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya. Spring 2014.
- Schimpfossl, Elisabeth; Yablokov, Ilya (2014). "Coercion or Conformism? Censorship and Self-Censorship among Russian Media Personalities and Reporters in the 2010s". Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization. 22 (2): 295–311. ISSN 1074-6846.
- Schimpfössl, Elisabeth; Yablokov, Ilya (2020-02-01). "Post-socialist self-censorship: Russia, Hungary and Latvia". European Journal of Communication. 35 (1): 29–45. doi:10.1177/0267323119897797. ISSN 0267-3231. S2CID 214256857.
- Bodrunova, Svetlana S; Litvinenko, Anna; Nigmatullina, Kamilla (2020-08-03). "Who is the censor? Self-censorship of Russian journalists in professional routines and social networking". Journalism: 1464884920941965. doi:10.1177/1464884920941965. ISSN 1464-8849. S2CID 225502997.
- Gomez, James (2000). Self-censorship: Singapore's Shame. Think Centre. ISBN 978-981-04-1739-0.
- Yesil, Bilge (2014-06-01). "Press Censorship in Turkey: Networks of State Power, Commercial Pressures, and Self-Censorship". Communication, Culture and Critique. 7 (2): 154–173. doi:10.1111/cccr.12049. ISSN 1753-9129.
- Arsan, Esra (2013-09-01). "Killing Me Softly with His Words: Censorship and Self-Censorship from the Perspective of Turkish Journalists". Turkish Studies. 14 (3): 447–462. doi:10.1080/14683849.2013.833017. ISSN 1468-3849. S2CID 146644682.
- Aktas, Vezir; Nilsson, Marco; Borell, Klas (2019-04-03). "Social scientists under threat: Resistance and self-censorship in Turkish academia". British Journal of Educational Studies. 67 (2): 169–186. doi:10.1080/00071005.2018.1502872. ISSN 0007-1005.
- Maksudyan, Nazan (2009-11-01). "Walls of Silence: Translating the Armenian Genocide into Turkish and Self-Censorship". Critique. 37 (4): 635–649. doi:10.1080/03017600903205781. ISSN 0301-7605. S2CID 143658586.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Self-censorship.|