Tropical Storm Kompasu (2021)

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Severe Tropical Storm Kompasu (Maring)
Severe tropical storm (JMA scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kompasu 2021-10-13 0600Z.jpg
Severe Tropical Storm Kompasu at peak intensity near Hainan on 13 October 2021
Formed7 October 2021
Dissipated14 October 2021
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 100 km/h (65 mph)
1-minute sustained: 100 km/h (65 mph)
Lowest pressure975 hPa (mbar); 28.79 inHg
Fatalities44 total
Damage$245 million (2021 USD)
Areas affectedPhilippines, Taiwan, South China (particularly Hainan Island), Vietnam, Thailand
Part of the 2021 Pacific typhoon season

Severe Tropical Storm Kompasu, known in China and Hong Kong as Typhoon Kompasu[1][2] and in the Philippines, as Severe Tropical Storm Maring[3] was a very large and deadly tropical cyclone that affected the Philippines, Taiwan, and southeast China. Part of the 2021 Pacific typhoon season, Kompasu originated from an area of low pressure east of the Philippines on 6 October 2021. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified it as a tropical depression that day. A day later, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) classified it as a tropical depression, naming it Maring. The cyclone was initially heavily disorganised, competing with another vortex, Tropical Depression Nando. Eventually, Maring became dominant, and the JMA reclassified it as a tropical storm, naming it Kompasu. Kompasu made landfall in Cagayan, Philippines, on 11 October 2021, and two days later, the storm made landfall in Hainan, China. The cyclone dissipated on 14 October 2021 while located over Vietnam.

According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), 43 people have died from the storm in the Philippines, with 17 missing. Damage is estimated at 6.4 billion (US$127 million).[3] In Hong Kong, one person died and 21 people were injured.[1] The storm impacted many areas previously affected by Tropical Storm Lionrock a few days prior.[4] According to Aon Benfield, economic losses outside the Philippines totaled US$118 million, with a grand total of US$245 million in economic losses.[5]

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
▲ Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

At 18:00 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) on 6 October 2021, the JMA noted that an area of low pressure embedded within a large monsoonal circulation had formed to the north of Palau.[6] The system developed into a tropical depression at 00:00 UTC of the next day.[7] At 09:00 UTC (17:00 PHT) on 7 October, PAGASA began issued its first bulletin for the depression, and assigned it the name Maring.[3][8] The JMA also noted the persistence of another, nearby tropical depression to its Northeast, later named Nando.[9] As it is embedded in the same monsoonal depression and due to its proximity, Nando began to merge with Maring, and therefore formed a rather broad and large circulation at a diameter of 1900km, beating Lekima of 2007 by 200km.[10][11] This prompted the JMA to upgrade the overall system to a tropical storm, and was named Kompasu.[12] However at that time, the JTWC still considered the system as two separate disturbances and issued separate TCFAs later in the day for both depressions, albeit noting the possibility of merging.[13][14] The JTWC later considered the entire system as merged with their first warning for Kompasu.[15] At midnight of October 11, the JMA upgraded it to a severe tropical storm, as it attained good cloud characteristics.[16] At 12:10 UTC (20:10 PHT) on 11 October, Kompasu made landfall on Fuga Island, Cagayan, as a severe tropical storm.[3][17] At 05:00 PHT of 13 October (21:00 UTC of 12 October), the PAGASA issued its final bulletin as its exited the PAR and continued towards Hainan.[18] Between 03:00 and 09:00 UTC of 13 October, Kompasu had made landfall over the east coast of Hainan.[19][20] By 18:00 UTC, the JMA downgraded it to a tropical storm, as it crossed the entire island and entered the Gulf of Tonkin, as its convection had rapidly weakened because of the rough terrain of the island.[21][22] At 09:00 UTC of the next day, the JTWC issued its final warning followed by downgrading to a tropical depression, as its convection had diminished and the low-level circulation center had been weakened significantly because of the increasing vertical wind shear and dry air, despite not making landfall over northern Vietnam.[23] The JMA issued its final warning after downgrading it to a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC.[24][25]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Severe Tropical Storm Kompasu approaching Luzon on 11 October

Around 2,000 people were evacuated as a precaution. On 12 October 2021, the governments of Baguio, Ilocos Sur, and Pangasinan cancelled school and suspended work in government offices. According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the storm affected more than 567,062 people in the Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Mimaropa, Central Luzon and Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon, as well as Caraga in Mindanao. Metro Manila, the national capital region, was also affected.[26] The Department of Public Works and Highways reported that 15 national roads and highways nationwide were impassable due to flooding attributed to Maring (Kompasu) and Tropical Depression Nando.[27] The NDRRMC reported that a total of 40 people died and 17 people are still missing. Five people were injured.[3][28] Of the dead, nine people died in landslides in Benguet and five died in flash floods in Palawan.[29] In La Trinidad, Benguet, three children died after a mudslide buried their home.[27] In Cagayan, power outages were reported. Around 200 people were evacuated.[30] Two people died after getting washed away by floodwaters, and ten people were rescued from flooded homes.[27] The Office of the Vice-President dispatched two squads to help those who were affected by the storm in the provinces of La Union, Cagayan, Isabela, and Benguet.[28] According to the NDRRMC, damage is estimated at 3.85 billion (US$75.7 million).[3] The government of the Philippines also distributed ₱17.94 million (US$353,418) worth of recovery items to people affected by the storm.[26]

China[edit]

On 13 October 2021, heavy rains affected Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan provinces. In Guangdong, a total of 30 cities and counties suspended classes, the highest since Typhoon Mangkhut in 2018.[31] Heavy rain lashed Shenzhen, where construction sites and tourist attractions were shut down.[32] The Yantian Port, one of the world's busiest ports, was closed, causing a maritime traffic jam.[33]

Hong Kong[edit]

The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) issued the No. 8 Gale or Storm Signal during the approach of Kompasu, and kept it in force for over 23 hours. This was the longest No. 8 Signal ever recorded, beating the record of Tropical Storm Lionrock three days prior.[34][35] Gale force winds of over 70 km/h were generally recorded over the coastal areas, with gusts exceeding 62 mph (100 km/h) in some areas.[36] The government opened 24 shelters, to which 255 people fled during the storm. The HKO recorded sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) as the center of the storm passed by. There were 72 reports of fallen trees, and 10 reports of flooding. One person died, and 21 people were injured.[1]

Hainan[edit]

Authorities in Hainan closed three ports,[37] and all schools were closed in Haikou.[38] Trees were brought down in Hainan, with firefighters clearing debris from roads. The storm was the strongest to hit the island in five years.[39]

Elsewhere[edit]

The Central Weather Bureau issued advisories for heavy rain for northern and eastern parts of Taiwan. Heavy rain was reported in numerous areas, including the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area.[40] The Thai Meteorological Department had issued heavy rain forecasts for the country's upper Isan region, but the rains eased off as the storm rapidly lost strength following its landfall in Vietnam.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Typhoon Kompasu: Hong Kong downgrades storm to T3 signal, transport set to resume". Hong Kong Free Press. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  2. ^ Typhoon Kompasu will make landfall in eastern coastal regions of Hainan Island,bringing pronounced windy and rainy weather (Report). China Meteorological Administration. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f SitRep No. 20 for Severe Tropical Storm Maring (2021) (Report). NDRRMC. 31 October 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Rain eases as storm Kompasu weakens". Bangkok Post. 15 October 2021. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  5. ^ Global Catastrophe Recap: October 2020 (PDF) (Report). Aon Benfield Inc. October 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  6. ^ "JMA Warning and Summary 061800". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 6 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  7. ^ "JMA Warning and Summary 070000". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 7 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  8. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #1 for Tropical Depression 'Maring'" (PDF). PAGASA. 7 October 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  9. ^ "JMA Warning and Summary 070600". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 7 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  10. ^ 杉江勇次 (22 October 2021). "巨大な台風18号は沖縄の南へ 新たな熱帯低気圧も発生か" [The huge Typhoon No. 18 is on its way to Okinawa, new tropical storm begins to form.].
  11. ^ 杉江勇次 (8 October 2021). "台風18号は、まれにみる発生当初からの巨大な台風" [Storm No. 18 is one of the rarest and most massive storms since its formation.]. Yahoo!ニュース (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2021. 今回の台風18号は速報値ではありますが、発生時から直径1900キロもの広大な強風域を持つ巨大な台風として生まれました。[...] これまで最も大きな強風域を持って発生した台風は2007年台風14号で、その大きさは直径1700キロでしたから。 ["Although data on Typhoon No. 18 comes from a preliminary report, it is said to have been born with a large wind field of 1,900 kilometers in its initial formation. [...] The previous typhoon with the largest wind field [according to JMA statistics since 1977] was Typhoon No. 14 in 2007, which had a diameter of 1,700 kilometers."]
  12. ^ "RSMC Prognostic Reasoning No. 4 for Tropical Storm Kompasu (2118)". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 8 October 2021. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  13. ^ Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Invest 93W) (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 8 October 2021. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  14. ^ Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Invest 94W) (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 8 October 2021. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  15. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 24W (Kompasu) Warning No. 1 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 10 October 2021. Archived from the original on 10 October 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  16. ^ "RSMC Prognostic Reasoning No. 15 for Severe Tropical Storm Kompasu (2118)". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 11 October 2021. Archived from the original on 11 October 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  17. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #22 for Severe Tropical Storm 'Maring' (Kompasu)" (PDF). PAGASA. 11 October 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  18. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #29-FINAL for Severe Tropical Storm 'Maring' (Kompasu)" (PDF). PAGASA. 12 October 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  19. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 24W (Kompasu) Warning No. 12 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 13 October 2021. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  20. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 24W (Kompasu) Warning No. 13 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 13 October 2021. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  21. ^ "RSMC Prognostic Reasoning No. 26 for Tropical Storm Kompasu (2118)". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 13 October 2021. Archived from the original on 14 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  22. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 24W (Kompasu) Warning No. 15 (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 13 October 2021. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  23. ^ Tropical Depression 24W (Kompasu) Warning No. 18-FINAL (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 14 October 2021. Archived from the original on 14 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  24. ^ "JMA Warning and Summary 141200". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 14 October 2021. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  25. ^ "JMA Warning and Summary 141800". Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 14 October 2021. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  26. ^ a b DSWD DROMIC Report #5 on Severe Tropical Storm "MARING" (PDF) (Report). Department of Social Welfare and Development. 15 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  27. ^ a b c Punongbayan, Michael (12 October 2021). "Maring Exits PAR, Leaves 9 Dead, 11 Missing". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  28. ^ a b "Severe Tropical Storm Maring displaces thousands in 4 regions – NDRRMC". CNN Philippines. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  29. ^ "At least 9 dead, 11 missing as storm Maring exits Philippines". BusinessWorld. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  30. ^ "Typhoon 'Maring' cuts power supply in Cagayan; 200 individuals safely evacuated". Manila Bulletin.
  31. ^ "刚刚!台风"圆规"登陆海南琼海,成近五年来登陆海南最强台风" [Just! typhoon Kompasu made landfall in the qionghai sea of hainan, making it the strongest typhoon to make landfall in hainan in the past five years] (in Chinese). 13 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  32. ^ "Tropical Storm Batters Shenzhen With Heavy Rain and Wind". NewsDeal. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  33. ^ Clark, Aaron; Varley, Kevin (12 October 2021). "Cyclone Closes One of World's Busiest Ports, Creating Ship Traffic Jam". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  34. ^ Low, Zoe; Magramo, Kathleen (11 October 2021). "Hong Kong facing another shutdown as Observatory warns No 8 signal could be up by afternoon with Tropical Cyclone Kompasu drawing near". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  35. ^ Low, Zoe; Lam, Nadia; Westbrook, Laura (13 October 2021). "Typhoon Kompasu roars past Hong Kong, leaving 1 dead and 20 injured". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  36. ^ "PRESS WEATHER NO. 139 – WIND INFORMATION IN HONG KONG DURING TROPICAL CYCLONE SITUATION". www.info.gov.hk. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  37. ^ "Typhoon barrels towards Hong Kong and south China coast". bdnews24.com. Reuters. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  38. ^ Patrick (13 October 2021). "Typhoon Kompasu possibly largest this year, classes suspended". Tropical Hainan. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  39. ^ "Typhoon Kompasu Brings Down Trees in China's Hainan Province" (video). Storyful. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021 – via Yahoo! News.
  40. ^ Charlier, Phillip (11 October 2021). "Heavy rain and wind advisories issued under influence of Severe Tropical Storm Kompasu". Taiwan English News. Retrieved 15 October 2021.

External links[edit]